Levopharnol 2mg is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.It is one of four enantiomers of the compound racemorphan, and was first described in Germany in 1948 as an orally active, morphine-like analgesic. The drug has been in clinical use in the United States since 1953.
Levopharnol 2mg acts predominantly as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), but is also an agonist of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and the nociceptin receptor (NOP), as well as an NMDA receptor antagonist and a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Levorphanol, similarly to certain other opioids, also acts as a glycine receptor antagonist and GABA receptor antagonist at very high concentrations. Levorphanol is 6 to 8 times as potent as morphine at the MOR.
Relative to morphine, Levopharnol 2mg lacks complete cross-tolerance and possesses greater intrinsic activity at the MOR.The duration of action is generally long compared to other comparable analgesics and varies from 4 hours to as much as 15 hours. For this reason Levopharnol 2mg is useful in palliation of chronic pain and similar conditions. Levorphanol has an oral to parenteral effectiveness ratio of 2:1, one of the most favorable of the strong narcotics. Its antagonism of the NMDA receptor, similar to those of the phenylheptylamine open-chain opioids such as methadone or the phenylpiperidine ketobemidone, make levorphanol useful for types of pain that other analgesics may not be as effective against, such as neuropathic pain. Levorphanol’s exceptionally high analgesic efficacy in the treatment of neuropathic pain is also conferred by its action on serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, similar to the opioids tramadol and tapentadol, and mutually complements the analgesic effect of its NMDA receptor antagonism.
Levopharnol 2mg shows a high rate of psychotomimetic side effects such as hallucinations and delirium, which have been attributed to its binding to and activation of the KOR. At the same time however, activation of this receptor as well as of the DOR have been determined to contribute to its analgesic effects. order Levopharnol 2mg, Levopharnol 2mg price,